Φωνή του Κηρεώτη
20, 2017, 08:44:09 pm *
, . .

,
:











H
 
      
: [1]   
   |   
:  ( 19790 )
admin
Administrator
Hero Member
*****

Karma: 0


: 1485


« : 25, 2009, 05:23:38 am »



, , (, , ).



. , , .  . , , - - , . . , , . .









    . ,   ,   . , ,     , .
    .


  : ( ), .



( )




 




&
, .

: ) , ) , ) , ) )




  ( ) (10 ..).        , ,       ,   , , . ,   .   .

:

   1.       (.. , , )   , , (P, K, N))   ,   .
   2.   (.. (PCBs), , (DDT), ) - , , , ,     .
   3. (.. , , , ) - , , , , .
   4. (.. , ,   , ) -   , , , , ,   "" (, , ).
   5.   (.. , , , , (CaCO3) ) - ,  , ,   .

-

  . :
   
   
   , , .




.

1.

;
1.    ; ;
2.    ;
3.    ; (  )
4.    ;
5.    .
6.    .   , , ;


2.

, , .   () .     .

3.  
;
1.    ;   ; ;
.    ;   ;   ; ; ;
.    ;
.      . F , ;

4.  

1.      ;
.      ;
.    ;
.      .
2.        . .  ,   .

5.   -

  .      .    .

6. -

.       .   .

/
 
  /   :
1.   
2.   
3.    ( )
4.    (, )
5.      , 
6.   
7.   .         .




, ,   . : (1) , (2)   (3) .
  : (1) (2) ( --)? (3)     ( 4)   -.




    ( , )
(Gradient control)
 (-)
    (pump and treat)
    , (Interceptor drains)
   
   
   
(bio-remediation)   


(, 2000).


-
.− .
− .
:




− ().
− .
− / ().
(interception systems):
− ( - )
− .
,
, . (interceptor trench) , (collector drain). ()
( ). , .
( , , ). , , - / .
():


− .
, ( ), , ( ).
.- , , , . .



:

(pump and treat)

, . , , .
, , , . - () ,   , ( ).
.

  .

   1. .   .
   2. . ,   .
   3.  .
   4.  .    ( ) ().



(air stripping)

(, ..). Henry,   .

(air sparging).

. . .


:

   1.  ,
   2.    9
 

, , , , . .




(bio-remediation)

() (, ). .
, . , (, pH, .). , . (CO2, H2O, H2S, CH4, ). , . . ( -engineered bioremediation). -intrinsic bioremediation). . (clogging) . , .
in situ, , .





(dual pump free product recovery). , . , . .



( ). .



, ,  , , , , , , , , . vittata Pteris, "", .   Cottonwood   Danbury Connecticut.  .    .  , .  .





    . , , ( ), , , , .

()

:

- ()

(, ), . . .
- (, ) . .

- (soil stabilization, solidification)

, () . . . , (CaO), () kai

(, ).


:

-

. ().

-

(steam stripping) , .

-

, . - (vacuum extraction) (), . (), .
, . . , . , , .

-

.

-

. , , .. .

-

. 150 oC .



 



   





/ ( ):

  .  



/ ( ):

  .

.

US Geological Survey

Ethan Grossman Jennifer McGuire



Innovative Remediation Technologies: Field-Scale Demonstration Projects in North America, 2nd Edition, Year 2000 Report

The Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix ( )

-Citizen's Guides to Cleanup Methods

Treatment Technologies for Site Cleanup: Annual Status Report (12th Edition) -


 
« : 15, 2010, 07:52:37 am admin »  
admin
Administrator
Hero Member
*****

Karma: 0


: 1485


« #1 : 25, 2009, 11:22:52 am »

Cr (VI)

. , , ,      .   Cr (VI) ( hydrochromate), .        , ,   Cr (VI)    (Cr (III)) ,   ( ).  Cr (VI)   Cr (III).

( Ex situ)        () (fixation)   (Cr (VI) ) (Cr (III)) . .

  (in situ)         () (fixation)    (.., , (PRBs) ). ( in situ)   ,  (electrokinetics), (PRBs) , , .


  ( In situ)
    , (Cr VI)   - (zerovalent iron), o  (surfactant modified zeolite ) .
  (Calcium polysulfide) ()   (Cr (VI) (Cr (III),   , , .     3- Fe (III)   Fe (II)      (sodium  dithionate). Fe (II) Cr (VI) Cr (III).  (In situ)   Cr (VI)   . , Cr (VI) Cr (III), Cr(OH)3   ()   .

   (geochemical fixation), (flushing and extraction), electrokinetics. ,   Cr V Cr San Gabriel   .


        (pump and treat) .  Cr V .    , .        (Cr V)     (biosorbent)   (Bacillus sp.)   (packed bed reactors) .   , , .


 
  Cr( V)   ( ),     , . , ,     : 1) (, .., )    , 2)       () , 3)   ()     Cr (V) , 4)   Cr (V)  , 5) ( Cr )   Cr VI



  Cr (VI) ()

Cook, K.R., LogoIn Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater Contaminated with Chromium. Technical Resource Guide, EPA 625-R-00-005, 2000.

GROUNDWATER INFORMATION SHEET Chromium VI 2009 State Water Resources Control Board

   



-Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium epa


  :


, , , 2003

Removal of Trivalent and Hexavalent Chromium by Seaweed Biosorbent 1998
David Kratochvil, Patricia Pimentel, and Bohumil Volesky


  Odessa Texas 1

  Odessa Texas 2


Chromium VI


USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program (Hexavalent Chromium)



World Health Organisation -Guidelines for drinking-water quality, Vol. 1, 3rd edition incorporating 1st and 2nd addenda [pdf 3.26Mb]


    0.21 g/litre.   0.040.5 g/litre.    0.020.3 g/litre. 1 10 g  . , (<1 g / ).
  <10 1300 g / kg
, , . .    52 943 g / ( )
     0,05 mg / ,  ,                 .
  HA 100 g / L 50 g / L. Cr (VI) .   A K   2,5 g / L 0,06 g / L   Cr (VI).

Public Health Goal for Hexavalent Chromium in Drinking Water Toxicology Branch
Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment California Environmental Protection Agency


(HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM PAPER GROUNDWATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION OF CALIFORNIA TECHNICAL COMMITTEE)









« : 20, 2010, 07:31:34 pm admin »  
admin
Administrator
Hero Member
*****

Karma: 0


: 1485


« #2 : 27, 2009, 09:42:26 pm »

    ( N3- N2-)    . , . .



(N3-) 50 mg/L (N2-) 0,5 mg/L 98/83/ . []/50+[]/3<1, mg/l (N3-) (N2-), 0,10 mg/ .

    10 (ppm) (10 mg/L)), 1 ppm (1mg/L), .

;
: . ,   hn .  . .
 
:  : , .



, , , .
    .


91/676/    :

- 50 mg/l

- ,

- - .

- : , ,  . , , , ,

-


16190/1335/97 ( 519 /25-6-97):

91/676/ 2000-2003

,



- 2000/60/ʻ [COM(2007) 128





  , (3-) 1 mg/L. 1 mg/L , .
, 3 - . . 10 mg/L. .

:

1)

(Kariotis et al., 2001). (KYA 16190/1335/97, 519/25-6-1997)
, , .. , .
  19562/1906/99 ( 1575/5-8-1999), , , , .
,

2)

3 - Cl-, . . , . .

3)


.

4)

. , .

5)


, . , .




91/676/ 12 1991

16190/1335/97 ( 519 /25-6-97):

« : 28, 2009, 01:50:55 am admin »  
: [1]   
   |   
 
:  

Powered by MySQL Powered by PHP Powered by SMF 1.1.2 | SMF © 2006-2007, Simple Machines LLC  XHTML 1.0!  CSS!
0.327 . 20 .